In today’s time, where Artificial Intelligence and the Internet of things are practically the backbone of many industries, we need to know how businesses can effectively use these technologies in their daily projects, without much hassle. In this article we are going to talk about IoT architecture and its various aspects in the business world.
The Internet of things or IoT is so much more than just sensors and circuits. It has its own set of business provisions. Sooner or later, if you require your business to implement IoT properly, then you have to develop the infrastructure. In order to track vibrations in turbines, energy companies already use networked sensors.They feed the information to computing systems across the network that analyze it to predict when machines will need maintenance and when they will malfunction. For example, Jet engine manufacturers incorporate sensors that measure temperature, pressure and other conditions to improve their products. Even for shipping and trailing purposes, IoT sensors come handy in checking the damaged goods.
IoT is one of those fields where you can easily connect with the real world. The main philosophy behind IoT is to connect real life parameters with technology to solve problems. There are many fields where IoT can be applied. In some businesses, IoT has even flourished on a grand scale level. Some of those fields include: Healthcare, City planning, Defence, Security and safety purposes, smart appliances and also agriculture.
Smart wearables are making a buzz already for their super efficient working and accurate results. In the same way, smart appliances are making their way up in the market, since their performance and reliability is more than the normal appliances. Similarly for agriculture, sensor based systems have not only helped in soil curation but also in crop protection and fertiliser and pesticide minimizer.
What are IoT protocols?
Now the interesting question arises, how devices communicate with each other in the IoT and how the IoT works? Well, as humans can communicate with each other, just like that, devices can communicate with other devices using protocols called IoT protocols. The protocol is defined as a set of regulatory rules and guidelines that determine how to respond to commands from another device. These protocols are very important in communication devices. General purpose protocols like CDMA, WAP, etc. are not suitable for this particular IoT technology. This technology requires some more powerful protocols.
Some of the Specific IoT Protocols List
- MQTT – Message Queue Telemetry Transport Protocol
- DDS – Data Distribution Service
- AMQP – Advanced Message Queuing Protocol
- CoAP – Constrained Application Protocol
Now we will get to know the four stage architecture of an IoT system:
The four-stage of an IoT Architecture
LEVEL 1: Sensors and actuators
The basic ingredients for a successful IoT structure are sensors and actuators. Sensors are the circuits which can sense certain parameters which provide real world information from the signals it has received. Actuators on the other hand is a device that converts the energy received from the signals to some action. Based on the response of sensors and actuators, the proper IoT architecture for any business firm is made. The basic circuit setup collects data from the sensors and then proceeds with the decision making for the action in result. This data is then fed to data evaluation and acquisition systems for better understanding and proper result analysis.
Internet gateways and data acquisition systems
The data acquisition system (DAS) collects raw data from the sensors and converts them from analog to digital format. The DAS then aggregates and formats the data before sending it over the gateway over wireless WANs (such as Wi-Fi or cellular) or wired WANs for the next stage of processing. At this point the data volume is at its maximum. The quantities can be very large, e.g. In a factory setting in which there are hundreds of WANs. Sensors can collect data at the same time. For this reason, the data is also filtered and compressed to an optimal size for transmission.
Analysis on the IoT data has been digitized and aggregated, it must be processed in order to further reduce the data volume in the data center or in the cloud. The edge device can perform some analysis as part. Machine learning can be very useful at this stage to give feedback to the system and continuously improve the process without waiting for instructions from the company data, usually found on a device in a location close to the center or cloud Place where the sensors are located, e.g. in a cable cabinet on site
In-depth analysis in the cloud or in the data center
In phase 4 of the process. With the help of powerful IT systems, data can be analyzed, managed and safely stored. This is usually done in the company’s data center or in the cloud, where data from multiple field locations / sensors can be combined to provide a broader picture of the global IoT system and actionable insights for both IT managers as in A company can operate in different regions and IoT data can be analyzed to identify key trends and patterns or to spot anomalies. At this level, industry and / or company specific applications can be used to perform in-depth analysis and apply business strategies . A loop that allows for continuous improvement. Stage 4 also includes storage in a data warehouse, both for recording and additional analysis
The 4-tier approach to IoT infrastructure and processing requires new levels of collaboration, especially when the separation between these stages begins to fade. If you are an IT professional, you should be ready to work closely with IT professionals. If you’re in IT, prepare to work more closely with OT. The two functions will converge as the IoT deepens the domain computing experience. IT professionals can expand their knowledge of IoT by starting small and working with experts in the domain to identify potentially valuable data sources. Would understanding the operating conditions of a machine help the company to design more efficient maintenance cycles? Examine the sensors and peripheral devices you would need. to collect the data Design the infrastructure Then experiment to ensure that the project produces results that lead to a strong business model.
IOT Architecture Example
Healthcare is among the top industries that have been leaders and forerunners in the adoption of the Internet of Things. The reason for this is that IoT systems help leverage high-quality patient care and combine it with massive savings, which otherwise is unaffordable. Within healthcare, key applications of IoT include, reducing unnecessary healthcare costs, and providing the right support at the right time by employing IoT-enabled smart medical services. In light of the huge population challenges ahead, one of the biggest concerns in healthcare is caring for the elderly and monitoring diseases such as diabetes and heart-related diseases. Therefore, prevention plays a key role in bringing better health to elderly patients. Therefore, it is not surprising that the Internet of Things is gaining ground, especially in health monitoring, where reliability, security and precise control in real time are.
The example of automated monitoring system for elderly patients requires real-time data collection and analysis, network connectivity to access infrastructure services, and an application to support the user interface and therefore, your architecture must include body sensors to collect patient data, gateways to filter and forward the data, microcontrollers or microprocessors to analyze and wirelessly send the data to the cloud, as well as a communication tool to transfer the data: to a remote location as an emergency.
The IoT architecture for the system consists of three stages: Physical, Communication, and Application. The first layer features a multiple sensor network that evaluates vital patient readings, such as nutrition, medical intakes, and physical activities. Also included in the physical layer is another monitoring network consisting of internal sensors and actuators to maintain air quality and temperature and to analyze and determine dangerous conditions for the The second layer includes OT devices that collect the information gathered from the sensors, translate it into meaningful data streams and transmit it to a back-end destination. In the third tier, data is received, stored and processed using cloud-based data analysis engines and machine learning mechanisms. The resulting knowledge can be used for future cases.
What is the IoT architecture?
The presented health monitoring system must be accessible to different users. For example, for the healthcare provider, the patient themselves, and any family member or carer. Considering this, one of the challenges of using IoT in healthcare is providing data security and privacy. Security can be achieved through encryption during data transmission. One example is the use of a microprocessor that ensures and provides a secure encryption communication method over a secure socket layer (SSL).
Real life business studies on IoT Architecture
A groundbreaking “Factory of the Future” project is taking shape at Airbus in Europe and provides an impressive example of how the Internet of Things could change the industrial world. Aircraft assembly technicians are being equipped with smart tools and wearable technology in the form of virtual devices – reality (VR) glasses, all of which are connected to the The aim is to improve the simplicity, quality, productivity and traceability of tasks such as drilling, measuring, tightening, clamping and data acquisition.
National Instruments (NI) worked closely with Airbus to develop a common software and hardware platform with which all These different machines and devices can be controlled and coordinated in a way that was previously too complicated to do this. For example image capture and processing via smart glasses, data is transmitted to an intelligent clamping tool that can understand what the task is Operator wants to perform and can use this information to adapt the environment and automatically determine the required torque. The device can save the results of its task in a central database in order to check whether the connection has been set up correctly.
Advantages and Disadvantages of IoT
Automation leads to uniformity of tasks, service quality and control of daily tasks without human intervention. Machine-to-machine communication also helps maintain transparency throughout the process.
The machine-to-machine interaction ensures better interaction efficiency so that employees can focus on other tasks.
In addition to making the most of Energy and resources, the IoT helps alleviate the problems associated with bottlenecks, failures and system damage. Communication With IoT, physical devices can stay connected and better communication, which creates better quality control. Immediate data access: More available information simplifies the decision-making process and makes life easier.
Privacy and Security
As many of our everyday devices, machines and services are connected to the Internet, more information must be readily available. It makes it harder to keep confidential information away from hackers and other unauthorized users.
There is currently no international compatibility standard for the IoT that can make it difficult for devices from different manufacturers to communicate with each other
Because the IoT is such a large and diverse Network, a single failure in software or hardware can have catastrophic consequences.
As the Internet of Things introduces more consistent automation, the need for unskilled workers in the workplace could decrease. Technology-dependent lives As our lives become more technology-dependent, basic human interaction skills are reduced across society
The IoT continues to transform business evolution, industrial, scientific and technical endeavors in profound and unpredictable ways. In the seventeenth century, newly invented instruments extended the range of human senses to the microscopic and astronomical realms. The IoT is the instrument with which your company can connect intelligent technologies with the data-emitting universe of objects. The effects on the IT infrastructure will be just as far-reaching.